The Parallel Pathways of Resilience and Sustainability

In the aftermath of last year’s extreme weather events the topic of ‘resiliency’ has become the subject of much discussion, excitement and some confusion within cities and the field of urban planning. But is this just yet another ‘buzz word’ to be casually thrown about or is there something more going on? This blog post explores what exactly this notion of ‘resilience’ is; what about the topic is making it so popular within the context of city planning; and what connections ‘resilience’ might have to cities’ sustainability priorities.

So, what is ‘resilience’ and who cares?

In a world where we are quick to label anything and everything- concepts, ideas and actions- the term ‘resilience’ is being used to describe a range of things, from the way that city leaders respond to short- and long-term city issues to how cities recover from unforeseen natural disasters.  At quick glance these applications seem unrelated and arbitrary, however, certain patterns implicitly emerge with closer examination.

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Supporting Food Systems, Supporting Communities

“The best way to preserve farmland is to make farmers successful on that land.”

This call to action from participants attending the Supporting Local Food Systems Roundtable at NLC’s Congress of Cities (CoC), speaks to just one of the many factors driving the National League of Cities’ (NLC) commitment to addressing sustainable food issues in America’s cities and towns by providing local government leaders with effective tools and resources.

This past Congress of Cities in Boston was my first, and potentially my only, as NLC staff. I am a National Urban Fellow, Class of 2013, who was chosen to spend my nine-month fellowship working with all three centers of NLC: Federal Relations, Research & Innovation and the Institute for Youth, Education, and Families. I come with past experience in endowment consulting and food system work, and hoped that my fellowship experience would allow me time to understand the intersection of food and policy in communities.

I am thankful to be working on the development of a comprehensive suite of resources to assist local activities and decision-making within the area of local foods. The resulting content will be used to build a brand new section of NLC’s Sustainable Cities Institute (SCI) on Sustainable Food Systems. As the centerpiece of NLC’s sustainability efforts, SCI provides a dynamic online platform of resources and peer‐networking opportunities to assist cities in identifying, planning for and implementing holistic, long‐term approaches to community‐wide sustainability. The Sustainable Food System section will be the latest addition to SCI and is scheduled to launch in early 2013.

My hope was to see the intersection of my interests as a fellow and the goals of SCI, come together to answer questions like: What issues are on concerned citizens minds about food that connect with local, state and federal policies? And how can local government play a role to help incentivize, finance and provide partnerships towards sustainable food systems? I started to answer portions of these questions while at CoC 2012.

The call to action that started this piece, made during our Supporting Local Food Systems Roundtable discussion, speaks to how I hope we as staff and the elected officials we serve see our respective constituents. Potentially, that the best way for a local elected official to preserve their cities and towns is to make sure their constituents are successful at home, at work, and in their neighborhoods. Potentially, that the best way for NLC to preserve its local elected official membership, is to equip that membership so that it is successful in its communities. This call to action recognizes that supporting worthwhile efforts, through preservation and maximization of resources can make successful communities.

During the roundtable discussion, I was reminded that food is critical to cities and towns because it connects so many different issues: poverty, economic development, public health, etc. I have found that the more I learn about food, the more it becomes an issue that unearths other issues; that a reality like food insecurity, is a symptom of something larger that city leaders strive to address.  I believe that NLC will make these connections from food to areas like economic development and infrastructure.

City leaders continued to make these connections at the conference during a World Cafe table on financing healthy foods, and a workshop titled “Growing Your Local Food Economy.”  Ideas were shared and roadmaps were offered around the issues of healthy food access, urban agriculture and the difficulty of luring large grocery stores to underserved communities. Also discussed were potential avenues of state funding, novel examples of partnerships and passing of ordinances to support, preserve and maximize efforts.

Every elected official who spoke up in these sessions had something to offer and was looking for something new for their communities. It reassured me that those who are thinking about food issues in their municipalities are striving to understand what other communities have done to help alleviate a difficult situation and how a solution goes beyond food to mean community benefit.

We in the Sustainability program at NLC need these stories!

A Sustainable Food Systems section is scheduled to launch in early 2013 on the SCI website, including tools such as classroom content, case studies, reports and guides, model policies and more. As we continue to develop these resources, we want to hear from you: what resources, tools or topics would be most helpful to assist your efforts in developing a strong, sustainable and healthy food system in your community?

Send feedback, ideas, successful practices or questions to David DeVaughn, NLC National Urban Fellow, at devaughn@nlc.org.

For more information on the Sustainable Cities Institute visit http://www.SustainableCitiesInstitute.org and follow us on twitter @SustCitiesInst

Local Food – A Conversation for all Regions

“Do you eat food?”

This was the question posed by Jim Embry, Director of the Lexington Sustainable Communities Network and local foods “jedi” (according to those in the local ‘food-know’) at the beginning of the Fourth Annual Local Foods Summit held last week in Lexington, KY.

“Because if you eat food, you’re part of the food system”

And thus began the three day event bringing together local and regional government representatives, small business owners, university students, farmers, chefs, authors, members of faith groups, healthcare workers, community members, and media personalities.

I had the pleasure of participating in the summit as a speaker on the roles of local government in creating and enabling healthy, sustainable food systems. As someone who spends a lot of time looking at a range of issue areas within the broad, sometimes abstract field of sustainability, and continually searching for ways to illuminate the interconnections among social, economic, and environmental factors in clear, compelling, and concrete ways, the topic of food is particularly exciting.

Photo credit: Michigan Good Food; http://www.michiganfood.org

As Jim Embry’s introductory question simply states – we all share in and have a personal connection to the food system. The production, processing, distribution, sale, and even eventual disposal of food all directly relates to and I believe are emblematic of the tangled web of sustainability. These components, are all part of the food system (see image) which affects and is affected by a number of other systems: energy sources; water availability and resulting water quality; nutrient cycles; transportation and infrastructure for distribution and processing; local economies through the support of small business, public health and more.

Looking across the various components of the food system, opportunities for local governments to directly or indirectly contribute become increasingly evident. And even more encouraging is the growing interest and the level of local engagement in recent years around the topic of food. Community gardens, farmers markets, healthy corner store initiatives, changes to zoning codes, and – a source of numerous city council debates – urban chickens, bees, and goats, have all been at the center of many urban sustainability discussions. As discussed in the NLC guide “Developing a Sustainable Food System,” several cities such as Cleveland, Ohio, Seattle, Wash., and Minneapolis, Minn. have been strongly involved in facilitating urban food production and access to healthy foods.

While the work currently happening within cities and towns to facilitate food access and promote smaller-scale production is vastly important, too often these conversations and plans are not fully connecting with the larger-scale food producers, processors, and distribution centers in rural communities. A particularly important insight I took away from the summit was the need and important role that local and regional government engagement can have in connecting-the-dots across urban and rural landscapes to address, support and strengthen all aspects of the food system.

At a roundtable discussion on regional food planning, farmers, processors, and local businesses discussed challenges they are facing in maintaining local production in rural areas. Topics ranged from lack of connected aggregation, processing and distribution infrastructure, to conflicts in balancing “true cost” against affordability, and issues of public engagement, awareness, and support for local food systems (just to name a few).

While the discussion raised some difficult and complex issues, several take away messages and recommendations also emerged that may be helpful for other communities to consider:

  • Recognize that local food really depends on regional food systems. Regional and local governments, planning agencies, and other decision making bodies should be engaged together in understanding the complex interdependencies of the food system. Recommendation: Incorporate food systems as part of a comprehensive, regional planning effort as well as part of local economic development and sustainability strategies.
  • Begin where you are by knowing where you are. A regional assessment or inventory can be critically important for a community and region to understand the range of resources already available.  Recommendation: Develop (with broad community involvement) an inventory of assets such as local producers, aggregation facilities, processing facilities, food hubs or distribution channels, local businesses (stores/ restaurants/ markets), and institutions that serve large quantity of meals that could source locally (i.e. schools, hospitals, jails, senior centers). In many cases the use of GIS mapping tools can be highly valuable here.
  • A social connection to food and agriculture is falling out of many communities’ cultural heritage. The seemingly endless availability of inexpensive, pre-packaged foods that permeate our food landscape has contributed to a loss in appreciation and recognition for food as a social and cultural resource. Furthermore, younger generations are not pursuing traditional agricultural careers in adequate numbers to maintain cultural heritage and local economies depending on these trades. Recommendation: More direct education, awareness, and support channels to promote  opportunities (traditional and entrepreneurial) for food-related careers. Communities should also consider engaging resources such as local media as partners to foster a community conversation around food (disclaimer: Sunny Side Up Radio in Lexington had invited me to attend this summit; they have been doing terrific work in making food FUN through a weekly program dedicated to local foods).
  • Local and regional governmental bodies can be enormously helpful in supporting and strengthening healthy food systems – but they cannot and should not act alone. Recommendation: Addressing any and all pieces of the food system will require broad community support and engagement. Local governments can be especially helpful in convening stakeholders and facilitating dialogue and are encouraged to maintain an open process by which all groups can contribute and be heard throughout any decision making process.

I thank Sylvia Lovely from Sunny Side Up Radio and Jim Embry for their kind invitation to participate in this Summit and salute the terrific work that is happening throughout Lexington and the surrounding region to promote healthy, strong, and sustainability local food systems!